Epic Characters of Ramayana

Epic Characters of Ramayana

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Sri Rama , an avatar of Lord Vishnu, was born to King Dasharatha and Queen Kausalya after the king performed the Aswamedha and Putrakameshthi yajnas. Rama and his three brothers had all the qualities of kshyatriyas and endeared themselves to one and all in Ayodhya. Sage Viswamitra once came to the king’s palace and requested for Rama to be sent to protect his yajna from two demons’ interference. Much to the king’s consternation, Rama and Lakshmana left with the sage. The sage initiated Rama into the ‘Bala- Atibala’ mantra. He first tackled Tataki successfully. The sage was so pleased that he initiated Rama into a number of divine weapons. Rama, in turn, initiated Lakshmana into them. Armed suitably, all the three reached the ashram where the yajna was to be performed. Everything went off well for five days but on the sixth day, Rama and Lakshmana destroyed Mareecha and Subahu as well as many demons who tried to defile the yajna. The yajna was then completed successfully. In due course, the princes heard the stories of the sage’s parentage and how he came to live in Siddhashrama, of Ganga, Himavantha, King Sagara and Sage Kapila. They reached Gowthama’s ashrama where Rama relieved the sage’s wife, Ahalya, of the curse she had been under. Moving on from there, they went to Mithila where Rama won Sita’s hand. After their marriage, Lakshamana got married to Urmila, Bharatha to Mandavi and Shatrughna to Shrutakirthi.

ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ - ಭಾಗ ೧

ದಶರಥ ಸಂತಾನಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ನಡೆಸಿದ ಪುತ್ರಕಾಮೇಷ್ಟಿಯಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ದೊರೆತ ಪಾಯಸದ ಸೇವನೆಯಿಂದ ಕೌಸಲ್ಯೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಜನಿಸಿದ ರಾಮ ವಿಷ್ಣುವಿನ ಅವತಾರ. ಅವನ ತಮ್ಮಂದಿರು ಭರತ, ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಮತ್ತು ಶತ್ರುಘ್ನ. ರಾಮ, ರಾಮಭದ್ರ, ರಾಮಚಂದ್ರ, ರಘುನಾಥ, ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಡುವ ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ವಿಶ್ವಾಮಿತ್ರರ ಯಾಗರಕ್ಷಣೆಗಾಗಿ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣನೊಡನೆ ಹೋಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಯಜ್ಞಕ್ಕೆ ವಿಘ್ನವುಂಟು ಮಾಡಲು ಬಂದ ತಾಟಕಿ, ಸುಬಾಹುಗಳನ್ನು ಸಂಹರಿಸಿ ಮಾರೀಚನನ್ನು ದೂರಕ್ಕೆ ಅಟ್ಟುತ್ತಾನೆ. ವಿಶ್ವಾಮಿತ್ರರಿಂದ ಬಲ-ಅತಿಬಲಾ ವಿದ್ಯೆಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಾನೆ. ನಂತರ ಸೀತಾಸ್ವಯಂವರಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಮಿಥಿಲೆಗೆ ಹೋಗುವ ದಾರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಗೌತಮಾಶ್ರಮದಲ್ಲಿ ಗೌತಮರ ಶಾಪದಿಂದ ಕಲ್ಲಾದ ಅಹಲ್ಯೆಯ ಶಾಪವಿಮೋಚನೆ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ನಂತರ ಮಿಥಿಲೆಯ ಜನಕ ರಾಜನ ಅರಮನೆಗೆ ಹೋಗಿ ಸೀತಾಸ್ವಯಂವರದ ಅಂಗವಾಗಿ ಪಣವಾಗಿ ಇಟ್ಟಿದ್ದ ಶಿವಧನುಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಭಂಜಿಸಿ ಸೀತೆಯನ್ನು ವಿವಾಹವಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ.


After all the four weddings, Rama, his brothers and parents went to Ayodhya. On the way they met Parasurama who acknowledged that Rama was superior to him. Rama’s coronation was stalled as Kaikeyi demanded Dasharatha to send Rama to the forest and anoint Bharatha king of Ayodhya. The king, Kausalya and many others were shocked. In spite of leading a sheltered life, Sita pledged her support to her husband. Lakshmana also joined them and together they left for the forest, reached Chitrakoota and later on they moved to Panchavati. It was here that Ravana cheated Rama and Lakshmana and abducted Sita. Lakshmana and Rama took the help of the vanaras, particularly Hanuman, killed Ravana and finally got back Sita. When challenged, Sita proved to Rama that she was as pure as ever. Everyone then proceeded to Ayodhya and Rama was crowned king. When some people again started doubting Sita’s fidelity, Rama sent her away to the forest. Sita was pregnant then and Valmiki took her under his care. By and by she gave birth to twin boys. When the sage asked Rama to accept her vouching for her purity as well, Rama again asked her to prove it to the people of Ayodhya. Sita prayed to Bhoomidevi who came and took her away. Sri Rama crowned Lava and Kusha kings and as desired by Brahmadeva, went back to his abode by entering the river Sarayu. The object of his incarnation was fulfilled.

ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ - ಭಾಗ ೨

ಸೀತೆಯೊಡನೆ ಅಯೋಧ್ಯೆಗೆ ಆಗಮಿಸುವ ರಾಮನ ರಾಜ್ಯಾಭಿಷೇಕಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ದಶರಥ ನಿಶ್ಚಯಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಆದರೆ ರಾಮನ ಚಿಕ್ಕಮ್ಮ ಕೈಕೇಯಿ ದಾಸಿ ಮಂಥರೆಯ ಮಾತಿಗೆ ಮರುಳಾಗಿ ರಾಮನಿಗೆ ಹದಿನಾಲ್ಕು ವರ್ಷಗಳ ವನವಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಭರತನಿಗೆ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷೇಕ - ಎಂಬ ಎರಡು ವರಗಳನ್ನು ದಶರಥನಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇಳುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಮೊದಲೇ ಮಾತುಕೊಟ್ಟಿದ್ದ ದಶರಥ ಆ ವರಗಳನ್ನು ಕೊಡಲು ಬದ್ಧನಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಮ ಪತ್ನಿ ಸೀತೆ ಸೋದರ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣನೊಡನೆ ವನಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊರಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಪಂಚವಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ರಾವಣ ಸೀತೆಯನ್ನು ಅಪಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ನಂತರ ಸೀತಾವಿರಹದಿಂದ ಬೇಯುತ್ತಾ ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ಋಷ್ಯಮೂಕಕ್ಕೆ ಬಂದು ಸುಗ್ರೀವನ ಸಖ್ಯವನ್ನು ಪಡೆದು ವಾಲಿಯನ್ನು ಸಂಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಸುಗ್ರೀವನ ಸಹಾಯದಿಂದ ಸೀತಾನ್ವೇಷಣೆಗೆ ಆರಂಭವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಹನುಮಂತ ಲಂಕೆಗೆ ಹೋಗಿ ಸೀತೆಯನ್ನು ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ನಂತರ ರಾಮ-ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣರು ವಾನರಸೈನ್ಯದೊಡನೆ ಸಮುದ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ಸೇತುವೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿ ಲಂಕೆಗೆ ಹೋಗುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಘೋರಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ರಾವಣ-ಕುಂಭಕರ್ಣರನ್ನೂ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಇಂದ್ರಜಿತುವನ್ನೂ ಸಂಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ಸೀತೆಯೊಡನೆ ಅಯೋಧ್ಯೆಗೆ ಆಗಮಿಸಿ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷಿಕ್ತನಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ.


Sita, Kushadhwaja’s daughter was Vedavathi who did severe tapas to win Vishnu as her husband. As Ravana tried to take her forcibly by her hair, she swore that he had defiled her and that she would be born as a woman just to destroy him. Thus, King Janaka found her as a baby in a box while ploughing the field. She was called Sita and came to be known as Maithili, Janaki and Vaidehi. When she grew up, King Janaka announced that he would get her married to the one who would string Shiva’s bow. It was thus that Rama won her hand. Sita remained an ideal wife to him, following him to the forest and renouncing everything in the palace. If Anasuya blessed her by giving her a divine string of beads, sages in Agastya’s ashram placed her among the greatest pathivrathas. He troubles started with the arrival of Shoorpanakha. Ravana then abducted her. All through her stay at the Asokavana in Lanka, she refused Ravana’s offer to become his queen and in fact, did not succumb to his threats either. She was thrilled on meeting Hanuman and knowing that Rama and Lakshmana had left no stone unturned in their search for her. After Ravana was killed by Rama in a mighty battle and she was released , Rama wanted her to prove her fidelity. She prayed to Agnideva and entered the lit pyre. The Fire God then emerged with her and handed her over to Rama. In spite of this test, she had to prove her fidelity once more after Rama was crowned king and some people started suspecting her. Rama asked Lakshmana to leave a pregnant Sita in the forest near Sage Valmiki’s hermitage. Sage Valmiki took care of her until she gave birth to twin boys. He then initiated them into education and when they were grown up, he came to Ayodhya along with Sita, Lava and Kusha. Again when Sita was asked to prove her purity to the people of Ayodhya, she prayed to Mother Earth to vouchsafe for her. In no time, Mother Earth appeared seated on a divine throne. She beckoned to Sita to sit on her lap and simply disappeared. Sita led a life of suffering, yet she never complained even once . She remained a faithful and loving wife and truly a queen.


ಜನಕರಾಜನ ಮಗಳು ಸೀತೆ. ಅಯೋನಿಜೆ. ಮಹಾಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಿಯ ಅವತಾರ. ಸೀರಧ್ವಜನು ಯಜ್ಞಮಾಡಲು ಭೂಮಿಯನ್ನು ಉಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಗ ನೇಗಿಲಿನ ಗುಳಕ್ಕೆ ಸಿಕ್ಕ ಪೆಟ್ಟಿಗೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಶಿಶುವಿನ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿ ದೊರೆತವಳು ಸೀತೆ. ಮೈಥಿಲಿ, ಜಾನಕೀ, ವೈದೇಹಿ ಮುಂತಾದ ಹೆಸರುಗಳೂ ಇವೆ. ಶಿವಧನುಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಬಗ್ಗಿಸಿ ಹೆದೆಯೇರಿಸಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸಿ ಧನುಸ್ಸನ್ನು ಮುರಿದ ಶ್ರೀರಾಮನನ್ನು ಪತಿಯಾಗಿ ವರಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಶ್ರೀರಾಮ ಅರಣ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊರಟಾಗ ತಾನು ಕೂಡ ಅರಣ್ಯದ ಕಷ್ಟಜೀವನವನ್ನು ಲೆಕ್ಕಿಸದೆ ಪತಿಯೊಡನೆ ಹೊರಡುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಅರಣ್ಯದಲ್ಲಿ ರಾವಣನಿಂದ ಅಪಹರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟು ಲಂಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಕ್ಷಸಿಯರ ಮಧ್ಯೆ ರಾಮನನ್ನೇ ಧ್ಯಾನಿಸುತ್ತಾ ಕಾಲಕಳೆಯುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಪರಮ ಸಾಧ್ವಿ ಸೀತೆಯ ಜೀವನ ಎಲ್ಲ ಸ್ತ್ರೀಯರಿಗೂ ಆದರ್ಶವಾದುದು.


Sage Valmiki, who lived on the banks of the Tamasa, was asked by Brahma to compose the Ramayana in the form of slokas. Valmiki was originally Ratnakara, a dreaded robber. Once Sage Narada advised him to mend his ways and asked him whether the people who were living on the fruits of his robbery would partake of his sinful acts. Ratnakara confidently approached his parents, people, wife and son only to be told that they were not willing to make his burden of sins lighter. In disbelief, he gave up robbery and tried to redeem himself by severe tapas, meditating upon Lord Rama’s name. He did this until he was covered by anthills and the saptharishis, the Devas and Narada appeared before him. Ratnakara attained a new radiant birth after his tapas and came to be know as Valmiki as ‘Valmika’ means ‘mole hill’. Lord Srihari who gave him a number of boons also made three divine bows out of the bamboo grass growing on the mole hill. Valmiki then built an ashram at the foot of the Chitrakoota hill and played host to Rama, Lakshmana and Sita during their sojourn in the forest. Again, it was the sage who took care of Sita when she was sent to the forest to prove her purity to the people of Ayodhya. He taught the Vedas to Lava and Kusha, took them and Sita back to Ayodhya and vouched for Sita’s fidelity. After handing over the bright boys to their father, Rama, and witnessing Sita being absorbed by Mother Earth, he returned to his ashram.


ರಾಮಾಯಣವನ್ನು ರಚಿಸಿದ ವರಕವಿ ಮಹರ್ಷಿ ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿ. ಮೊದಲು ದರೋಡೆಕೋರನಾಗಿದ್ದ ರತ್ನಾಕರ ನಾರದ ಮಹರ್ಷಿಗಳ ಉಪದೇಶದಿಂದ ತಪಸ್ಸು ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಅವನ ಮೈಮೇಲೆ ಹುತ್ತ ಬೆಳೆದು (ವಲ್ಮೀಕ) ಅದರಿಂದ ಹೊರಬಂದವ ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿಯಾದರು. ಒಂದು ಹೆಣ್ಣು ಮತ್ತು ಒಂದು ಗಂಡು ಕ್ರೌಂಚಪಕ್ಷಿಗಳು ವಿಹರಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದಾಗ ಒಬ್ಬ ಬೇಡನು ಅವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದನ್ನು ಕೊಲ್ಲುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಆಗ ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿ ಮಹರ್ಷಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಉಂಟಾದ ಶೋಕ ಶ್ಲೋಕರೂಪವಾಗಿ ಹೊರಹೊಮ್ಮಿ ರಾಮಾಯಣದ ರಚನೆಗೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಯಿತು. ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿಂದ ರಾಮಾಯಣವನ್ನು ರಚಿಸಲು ಪ್ರೇರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿಗಳಿಗೆ. ಅವರು ಬರೆಯುವುದೆಲ್ಲವೂ ಸತ್ಯವಾಗುವುದೆಂದು ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿಂದ ವರದಾನವಾಯಿತು. ರಾಮನಿಂದ ತ್ಯಜಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ಗರ್ಭಿಣಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದ ಸೀತೆಗೆ ವಾಲ್ಮೀಕಿಗಳು ತಮ್ಮ ಆಶ್ರಮದಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಇರಲು ಅವಕಾಶ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಡುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಅಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಲವ-ಕುಶರ ಜನನವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.


Hanuman was born to Anjana, a vanara woman who was cursed by Brihaspathi for having pestered him to marry her. Hanuman was extremely radiant at birth and as a little baby, had once jumped into the sky to eat up the sun thinking it was a fruit! During a scuffle among Devendra, Rahu and Hanuman, Indra injured the child Hanuman and Vayudeva got angry with him. In retaliation, he took away the child and went into a cave. The world became bereft of air and Brahma had to intervene to ease the situation. He and all the devas took turns to specially bless the child and bestow on him special powers. Later Hanuman used these powers in his search for Sita and during the great battle at Lanka. The whole of Lanka was petrified by his actions as he went about destroying Pramadavana and the 80,000-strong army of Ravana. His tail was set on fire and he was paraded through the streets of Lanka but he used this opportunity to observe each and every house and street of Lanka. During the battle when Rama and Lakshmana fell down unconscious, he brought the Sanjeevani mountain which contained life-saving herbs. Hanuman was a divine messenger as he carried the good news of Ravana’s death to Sita as well as to Bharatha and Guha. Earlier he had carried the most comforting message of Rama and Lakshmana’s search for Sita to her. After the coronation, Sri Rama gave expensive gifts to everyone. When he gave an exquisite necklace of pearls to Sita, she looked at him to be told that she could give it to anyone who had made her happy. Very rightly, she gave it to Hanuman. When Sri Rama was ready to go to his heavenly abode after completing the mission of his incarnation, he ordered Hanuman and Vibhishana to remain on earth as pillars of his victory and his righteousness.


ಕೇಸರಿ ಅಂಜನಾ ದಂಪತಿಗಳಿಗೆ ವಾಯುದೇವನ ವರದಿಂದ ಜನಿಸಿದ ಪುತ್ರ ಹನುಮಂತ. ರುದ್ರಾಂಶಸಂಭೂತ. ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಸೂರ್ಯಗ್ರಹಣದ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಉದಯಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಸೂರ್ಯನನ್ನು ಹಣ್ಣೆಂದು ಭಾವಿಸಿ ನುಂಗಲು ಅಂತರಿಕ್ಷಕ್ಕೆ ಹಾರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಆಗ ರಾಹು ಸೂರ್ಯನನ್ನು ನುಂಗಲು ಬರುತ್ತಿರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಹುವನ್ನು ನೋಡಿದ ಹನುಮಂತ ಸೂರ್ಯನನ್ನು ಬಿಟ್ಟು ರಾಹುವಿನ ಕಡೆಗೆ ತಿರುಗಿದಾಗ ದೇವೇಂದ್ರ ವಜ್ರಾಯುಧದಿಂದ ಅವನ ಕೆನ್ನೆಗೆ ಹೊಡೆಯುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮೂರ್ಛೆ ತಪ್ಪಿ ಆಂಜನೇಯ ಭೂಮಿಯ ಮೇಲೆ ಬೀಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ವಾಯುದೇವ ಕುಪಿತನಾಗಿ ವಿಶ್ವದಲ್ಲಿ ತನ್ನ ಸಂಚಾರವನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಿ ಪುತ್ರನೊಡನೆ ಒಂದು ಗುಹೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅಡಗಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ನಂತರ ಎಲ್ಲ ದೇವತೆಗಳೂ ಆಗಮಿಸಿ ಆಂಜನೇಯನಿಗೆ ಅನೇಕ ವರಗಳನ್ನು ಅನುಗ್ರಹಿಸಿ ವಾಯುವನ್ನು ಸಂತೋಷಪಡಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಚಿರಂಜೀವಿ, ರಾಮದೂತ ಹನುಮಂತನ ಚರಿತ್ರೆ ರಾಮಾಯಣದಲ್ಲಿ ವಿವರವಾಗಿ ಬಂದಿದೆ. ರಾಮ-ಸುಗ್ರೀವ ಸಖ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಮೂಲಕಾರಣ ಹನುಮಂತ ಸೀತಾನ್ವೇಷಣೆಗಾಗಿ ಸಮುದ್ರಲಂಘನ, ಲಂಕಾದಹನ, ಸೇತುಬಂಧನ, ರಾಕ್ಷಸ ಸಂಹಾರ, ಇಂದ್ರಜಿತುವಿನ ಸಂಹಾರದಲ್ಲಿ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣನಿಗೆ ಸಹಾಯಕ, ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತ, ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ ಅತಿಬಲಶಾಲಿಯಾದ. ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಚಾರಿಯಾದ ಹನುಮಂತನ ಚರಿತೆಯನ್ನು ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ಓದಲೇಬೇಕು.


Lakshmana was Dasharatha and Sumitra’a son, Rama’s brother and an incarnation of Adisesha, the divine serpent. He mastered the Vedas and other subjects in quick time. He accompanied Rama when sage Vishwamitra wanted help in the conduct of a yajna which was being troubled by demons. After standing guard with Rama at the yajna and helping him kill several demons, he expressed no desire to return home. After Rama won Sita’s hand, Lakshmana got married to Urmila. When he came to know Kaikeyi’s evil demand, he was furious and was prepared to eliminate all obstacles, even if it meant killing his father. He gave up everything in order to be with Rama and Sita during their stay in the forest. He protected both of them as can be seen by the way he chopped off Shoorpanakha’s nose and ears when the latter tried to attack Sita. After Sita’s abduction, it was Lakshmana who instilled confidence in Rama whenever he lost it. He was highly duty conscious and expected others to be like him –Sugreeva got crowned as king of Lanka and promised to help Rama in searching for Sita but forgot about it. Lakshmana was furious and had to be calmed down by Rama. His support to Rama during the battle at Lanka was invaluable. After Rama was crowned, he desired Lakshmana to be the yuvaraja but he insisted that the honour must go to Bharatha. He was heartbroken when Rama asked him to leave Sita at Valmiki’s hermitage because some people had doubted her fidelity. Caught between his duty to his brother and Durvasa, he chose to sacrifice himself. Thus he faced banishment and later entered swarga with his body and soul. It was no wonder that Sage Valmiki expressed that Lakshmana was the outer breath of Sri Rama.


ಸುಮಿತ್ರೆಯ ಮಗ. ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ-ಶತ್ರುಘ್ನರು ಅವಳಿ ಮಕ್ಕಳು. ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಆದಿಶೇಷನ ಅವತಾರ. ವಿಶ್ವಾಮಿತ್ರರು ರಾಮ-ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣರನ್ನು ಯಜ್ಞರಕ್ಷಣೆಗಾಗಿ ಕರೆದೊಯ್ಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ಸೀತಾಸ್ವಯಂವರದ ತರುವಾಯ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಊರ್ಮಿಳೆಯನ್ನು ವಿವಾಹವಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಮ ಹದಿನಾಲ್ಕು ವರ್ಷಗಳ ವನವಾಸಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊರಟಾಗ ತಾನು ಕೂಡ ಅವನೊಡನೆ ಹೋಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಶೂರ್ಪಣಖಿಯ ಕಿವಿ-ಮೂಗುಗಳನ್ನು ಕತ್ತರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ಮಾರೀಚನ ಮಾಯೆಯ ಚಿನ್ನದ ಜಿಂಕೆಯನ್ನು ರಾಮ ಅಟ್ಟಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಹೋಗಿ ಬಾಣದಿಂದ ಅದನ್ನು ವಧಿಸಿದಾಗ ಅದು ‘ಹಾ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ! ಹಾ ಸೀತೆ!’ ಎಂದು ಕೂಗುತ್ತಾ ಸಾಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಆಗ ಸೀತೆ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣನನ್ನು ಕಳಿಸುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಹೋಗುವಾಗ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಆಶ್ರಮದ ಎದುರು ಗೆರೆಗಳನ್ನು ಎಳೆದು ಅದನ್ನು ದಾಟದಂತೆ ಹೇಳಿ ಹೊರಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಅದನ್ನೇ ‘ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ರೇಖೆ’ ಎನ್ನುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ ಇಂದ್ರಜಿತುವನ್ನು ಸಂಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಈ ರೀತಿ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣನ ಭ್ರಾತೃಪ್ರೇಮ ತ್ಯಾಗಜೀವನ ಎಲ್ಲರಿಗೂ ಆದರ್ಶವಾದುದು.


Ravana was born to Kaikasi and Vishravasa, and Pulatsya ( son of Prajapathi Brahma) was his grandfather. Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana were his brothers and Shoorpanakha was his sister. As he was born with ten heads, he was known as Dashagreeva, Dashanana, etc. He went to Gokarna with his brothers and performed such severe penance that Lord Brahma appeared before him and granted him a boon by virtue of which he would be immune to death at the hands of devas, danavas, yakshas, nagas and garuda. He also got back his nine heads that he had offered to Brahma as well as the power to take any form he liked. Following Sumali’s advice he demanded Lanka back from Kubera and waged war against him too. Later he married Mandodari and due to arrogance, came to be cursed by Nandikeshwara, one of Siva’s followers, saying that his end would come at the hands of monkeys. He received the divine weapons, Shakthi and Chandrahasa . He misbehaved with Vedavathi who swore that she would take birth again only to destroy him. He fought with many kings and this brought him to Ayodhya where again he fought with King Anaranya of the Ikshwaku dynasty. Before dying, the king proclaimed that Sri Rama of his dynasty would destroy him. Taking up Narada’s challenge, he laid siege on Yamaloka. There was no end to his evil ways as he went about challenging, killing, fighting and reveling in his victories. It was however left to Sri Rama, Lakshmana and the vanara warriors to bring about Ravana’s end as well as the end of many other rakshasas.


ಕೈಕಸಿ ಮತ್ತು ವಿಶ್ವವಸು ಅವರ ಮಕ್ಕಳಲ್ಲಿ ಹಿರಿಯವನು ರಾವಣ. ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನ ಮಗನಾದ ಪುಲಸ್ತ್ಯ ರಾವಣನ ಅಜ್ಜ. ಕುಂಭಕರ್ಣ, ವಿಭೀಷಣ ತಮ್ಮಂದಿರು. ತಂಗಿ ಶೂರ್ಪನಖಿ. ಹತ್ತು ತಲೆಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಹುಟ್ಟಿದವನು. ಬ್ರಹ್ಮನಿಂದ ನರ-ವಾನರರ ಹೊರತಾಗಿ ಬೇರೆ ಯಾರಿಂದಲೂ ಮರಣ ಉಂಟಾಗಬಾರದೆಂದು ವರಪಡೆದು ಗರ್ವಿಷ್ಠನಾದ ರಾವಣ ದೇವತೆಗಳನ್ನು ತನ್ನ ಊಳಿಗಕ್ಕೆ ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ತಂಗಿ ಶೂರ್ಪಣಖಿಗೆ ಆದ ಅಪಮಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರತೀಕಾರವನ್ನು ಸೀತಾಪಹರಣದ ಮೂಲಕ ತೀರಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ವೇದವತಿಯೊಡನೆ ಅನುಚಿತವಾಗಿ ವರ್ತಿಸಿ ಶಾಪಗ್ರಸ್ತನಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಸೋದರನಾದ ಕುಬೇರನನ್ನು ಲಂಕೆಯಿಂದ ಓಡಿಸಿ ಲಂಕಾರಾಜ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ಪುಷ್ಪಕ ವಿಮಾನವನ್ನು ಅಪಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ರಾಮನೊಡನೆ ನಡೆದ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಮನಿಂದ ಮರಣವನ್ನಪ್ಪುತ್ತಾನೆ.


Dasharatha , Ajamaharaja and Indumathi’s son, was better known as Kaushalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi’s husband and Sri Rama’s father, the king of Ayodhya. He ruled for 60,000 years, was a courageous kshatriya and had mastered the Vedas and other branches of knowledge. His rule had a spiritual base and he was advised by sage Vashista and sage Vamadeva. As he had no children, he performed two yajnas after which his three queens gave birth to Rama, Lakshmana, Bharatha and Shatrughna. Reminding him of the two boons that were due to her from the king, Kaikeyi demanded that her son be made the king of Ayodhya against the popular choice of Rama. Later, when Viswamitra asked him to send Rama to help him in the conduct of a yajna, he was hesitant and even scared because it involved his young son. He was in constant turmoil after he was forced to keep his word to Kaikeyi. He could not tolerate life after the departure of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita to the forest and hence passed away. When Rama killed the wicked Ravana, Dasharatha appeared in the sky and blessed Rama, Lakshmana and Sita. He was a rajarshi who was endowed with good qualities. However, he suffered because of his small weakness, that is, sometimes doing things without thinking.


ಅಜಮಹಾರಾಜನ ಮಗ ದಶರಥ. ಕೌಸಲ್ಯೆ, ಕೈಕೇಯಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸುಮಿತ್ರೆ ಇವರು ಅವನ ಪತ್ನಿಯರು. ಮಕ್ಕಳಿಲ್ಲದ ದಶರಥ ಪುತ್ರಕಾಮೇಷ್ಟಿಯಾಗವನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿ ರಾಮ, ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮಣ, ಭರತ-ಶತ್ರುಘ್ನರೆಂಬ ಪುತ್ರರನ್ನು ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಮನನ್ನು ಕಂಡರಂತೂ ಅವನಿಗೆ ಅಪಾರ ಪ್ರೀತಿ. ಒಂದು ಕ್ಷಣವೂ ಬಿಟ್ಟಿರಲಾರ. ಹಿಂದೊಮ್ಮೆ ದೇವಾಸುರ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ದೇವತೆಗಳ ಸಹಾಯಕ್ಕೆ ಪತ್ನಿ ಕೈಕೇಯಿಯೊಡನೆ ಹೋಗಿದ್ದ ದಶರಥ ಪತ್ನಿಯ ಸಾಹಸವನ್ನು ಮೆಚ್ಚಿ ಎರಡು ವರಗಳನ್ನು ಕೊಡುವುದಾಗಿ ಹೇಳಿದ್ದನ್ನು ಕೈಕೇಯಿ ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಆಗ ಕೇಳಿರಲಿಲ್ಲ. ರಾಮನ ರಾಜ್ಯಾಭಿಷೇಕದ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕೈಕೇಯಿ ಎರಡು ವರಗಳಾಗಿ ರಾಮನಿಗೆ ಹದಿನಾಲ್ಕು ವರ್ಷಗಳ ವನವಾಸ ಹಾಗೂ ಭರತನ ಪಟ್ಟಾಭಿಷೇಕಗಳನ್ನು ಕೇಳುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ದಶರಥ ಇದರಿಂದ ಘೋರವಾದ ದುಃಖಕ್ಕೆ ಗುರಿಯಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಮನು ವನವಾಸಕ್ಕೆ ಹೊರಟನಂತರ ಪುತ್ರಶೋಕದ ದುಃಖವನ್ನು ತಾಳಲಾರದೆ ಮರಣವನ್ನಪ್ಪುತ್ತಾನೆ.


Vibhishana was Ravana’s youngest brother, endowed with great learning and very unlike his brothers and sister. In spite of being born in the rakshasa clan , he stood by dharma and Brahma granted him immortality and the ability to wield the brahmastra. He married Shaileesha’s daughter Sarama. Observing that Ravana’s evil ways were only growing, he tried his best to put some sense into him. Being a clever statesman, he warded off Ravana’s attempt to kill Hanuman who had come as Rama’s messenger. Later when Hanuman went about burning Lanka, it was Sita and Vibhishana who remained unhurt. Vibhishana again requested Ravana to return Sita to SriRama and make peace with him. When nothing could change Ravana’s mind, he gave up everything including his wife and children and left Lanka. He pledged himself in support of Sri Rama. Everyone in Rama’s army doubted his intentions but it was Hanuman who rightly advised Rama to take in Vibhishana as he believed that his intentions were genuine. He helped Rama with constructive suggestions, gave him timely advice and warning, and was able to recognize Ravana’s spies who had mingled with the vanaras. He invited Indrajit’s wrath when the latter saw him guiding Lakshmana. In the end, when Ravana lay dead on the battlefield, Vibhishana was overcome with grief. He was torn between his duty in performing his brother’s last rites and denying it on the grounds that Ravana had indulged in sinful acts. It was Rama who convinced him to go ahead with it in order to send his brother to heaven. Sri Rama then asked Lakshmana to crown Vibhishana king of Lanka.


ರಾವಣನ ಕಿರಿಯ ತಮ್ಮ ವಿಭೀಷಣ. ಮಹಾದೈವಭಕ್ತ. ಧರ್ಮಶಾಲಿ. ರಾವಣ ಸೀತೆಯನ್ನು ಅಪಹರಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಬಂದಾಗ ಸೀತೆಯನ್ನು ರಾಮನಿಗೆ ಹಿಂದಿರುಗಿಸುವಂತೆ ರಾವಣನಿಗೆ ಅನೇಕ ಬಾರಿ ಬುದ್ಧಿವಾದ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಆದರೆ ರಾವಣ ಅವನ ಮಾತನ್ನು ಕೇಳದೆ ತುಂಬಿದ ಸಭೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಅವನನ್ನು ಅವಮಾನಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಇದರಿಂದ ವಿಭೀಷಣ ಬೇಸರಗೊಂಡು ಸೈನ್ಯಸಮೇತನಾಗಿ ಲಂಕೆಗೆ ಆಗಮಿಸಿದ್ದ ರಾಮನಿಗೆ ಮಂತ್ರಿಗಳೊಡನೆ ಶರಣುಬರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ರಾಮ ಯುದ್ಧಕ್ಕೆ ಮೊದಲೇ ವಿಭೀಷಣನಿಗೆ ಲಂಕೆಯ ಚಕ್ರವರ್ತಿಯಾಗಿ ಅಭಿಷೇಕ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ನಡೆದ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ವಿಭೀಷಣ ರಾಮನಿಗೆ ಅನೇಕ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ನೆರವಾಗುತ್ತಾನೆ.


Vali and Sugreeva were born to a vanara maiden as a boon from Indra and Suryadeva respectively. Vali was crowned the king of Kishkinda. As a result of a number of boons he became invincible. When Ravana challenged his might, he simply carried the demon under his arm and smashed him down thus humiliating him. Ravana had to bow down to him and seek his friendship. There ensued a battle between Vali and Dundhubi, who came in the form of a wild buffalo. Vali destroyed him completely and hurled him in the sky. In doing so, the blood from the dying animal defiled Sage Matanga’s ashram due to which the sage cursed Vali and the vanaras saying that whoever came near his ashram would fall down dead. Mayavi, Dundubhi’s brother, retreated into a cave after challenging Vali. Vali followed him in leaving Sugreeva guarding the mouth of the cave . Poor Sugreeva who had been sworn not to enter the cave stood guard for more than a year after which he heard the loud scream of the rakshasa and then saw blood streaming out. Thinking that Vali had been killed, he shut the mouth of the cave with a boulder with the intention of preventing further damage at the hands of the demon. However, Vali returned , accused Sugreeva of usurping his place by deceit and banished him from Kishkinda. Sugreeva later on forged friendship with Rama and Lakshmana, killed Vali and helped Rama get back Sita after commanding an army himself at the battle of Lanka. On his deathbed, Vali heard Rama speak about dharma and made peace with Sugreeva. He asked him to take over the responsibility of the kingdom, his son Angada and his wife Tara. Sugreeva repented for bringing about his brother’s end, performed his last rites and helped him reach heaven. When Rama decided that it was time for him to get back to vaikunta, the purpose of his incarnation being over, Sugreeva was among those who accompanied him.


ವಾಲಿ-ಸುಗ್ರೀವರು ಅನುಕ್ರಮವಾಗಿ ಇಂದ್ರ ಮತ್ತು ಸೂರ್ಯದೇವರ ವರದಿಂದ ಹುಟ್ಟಿದವರು. ಕಿಷ್ಕಿಂಧೆಯ ರಾಜ ವಾಲಿ. ಅಸಾಧಾರಣ ಶಕ್ತಿಯುಳ್ಳವನು. ಮಾಯಾವಿ ಎಂಬ ರಾಕ್ಷಸನೊಡನೆ ಯುದ್ಧಮಾಡುತ್ತ ಗುಹೆಯನ್ನು ಪ್ರವೇಶಿಸಿ ವರ್ಷವಾದರೂ ಹೊರಕ್ಕೆ ಬಾರದೆ ಹೊರಗೆ ರಕ್ತ ಬರುತ್ತಿರುವುದನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ ಗುಹೆಯ ಹೊರಗೆ ಕಾವಲಿದ್ದ ಸುಗ್ರೀವ ವಾಲಿ ಸತ್ತನೆಂದು ತಿಳಿದು ಕಿಷ್ಕಿಂಧೆಗೆ ಹಿಂದಿರುಗುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮಾಯಾವಿಯನ್ನು ಸಂಹರಿಸಿ ಗುಹೆಯಿಂದ ಹೊರಬಂದ ವಾಲಿ ಸುಗ್ರೀವನನ್ನು ಕಾಣದೆ ಕಿಷ್ಕಿಂಧೆಗೆ ಬರುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಅಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಜನಾಗಿದ್ದ ಸಹೋದರನನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ ಕೋಪದಿಂದ ಅವನನ್ನು ರಾಜ್ಯಭ್ರಷ್ಟನನ್ನಾಗಿ ಮಾಡಿ ಅವನ ಪತ್ನಿ ರುಮೆಯನ್ನು ತನ್ನ ಅಂತಃಪುರಕ್ಕೆ ಸೇರಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಮುಂದೆ ರಾಮ-ಸುಗ್ರೀವ ಸಖ್ಯವಾದ ಬಳಿಕ ರಾಮ ವಾಲಿಯನ್ನು ಸಂಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ.